hub sciencedirect scopus applications register login login go to scival suite username: password: remember me | not registered? Forgotten your username or password? buying viagra online forums Go to athens / institution login remote access activation home publications search my settings my alerts shopping cart help export citation purchase more options... viagra online without prescription Email article search     all fields     author advanced search     journal/book title     volume   issue   page search tips article outline is loading... order viagra online Javascript required for article outline seminars in neonatology volume 8, issue 6, december 2003, pages 425–432 conundrums and controversies in neonatal intensive care treatment of patent ductus arteriosus jonathan wyllie , the james cook university hospital, marton road, middlesbrough ts4 3bw, uk received 1 june 2003 accepted 1 july 2003 available online 25 september 2003 how to cite or link using doi permissions & reprints view full text purchase $24. 95 1. Introduction 2. can you use viagra high blood pressure Morphology and morphogenesis 3. generic viagra Intra-uterine ductal patency 4. buy generic viagra online Postnatal ductal closure 5. Factors which affect ductal closure 6. Diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus 7. Prevention of ductal patency 8. can you use viagra high blood pressure Medical treatment of pda 9. Surgical treatment 10. Conclusions references abstract patent ductus arteriosus (pda) continues to be one of the most common problems found in premature infants. The incidence is inversely related to gestation, but may be reduced by use of antenatal steroids, lower volume fluid regimen and judicious use of phototherapy. However, there continues to be controversy as to the appropriate indications for treatment, varying from prophylaxis on the basis of gestation to treatment only when a pda is demonstrably significant. The situation is further complicated by differing diagnostic criteria for ductal patency or significance. Prophylactic treatment is likely to result in up to 64% of babies being treated unnecessarily. Early treatment of significant or symptomatic pda depends upon accurate diagnosis. Pda closure can then be achieved using medical means, with surgery reserved for patients in whom this fails or in whom there are contra-indications. However, the optimum timing for intervention remains unknown. Keywords patent ductus arteriosus; diagnosis; prevention; treatment there are no figures or tables for this document. Tel. : +44-1642-854-719 copyright © 2003 elsevier ltd. buy generic viagra All rights reserved. Bibliographic information citing and related articles related articles no articles found. Cited by in scopus (44) related reference work articles no articles found. Applications and tools workspace no content has been selected. buying viagra online united states About sciencedirect about elsevier contact and support infor.